"The Relevance-Accessibility Model of Advertising Effectiveness 1988"


In this introduction to the Relevance-Accessibility Model of Advertising Effectiveness (RAM), the model is distinguished from earlier models of advertising effectiveness. Prior models presumed that advertising effectiveness is determined at the time of advertising exposure. This was predicated on the belief that advertising generated brand attitudes rather than specific message content are carried forward to the time of brand choice to influence brand choice. The RAM is fundamentally different. It presumes that specific advertising message content, not brand attitudes, competes with other forms of information (e.g., package information, prior experience, salesperson information, sales promotion etc.) at the time of brand choice. Its effectiveness is a function of it memorability and its relevance relative to this competing information. Rather than focus on creating positive brand attitudes, the RAM stresses (1) understanding the information consumers use to drive their brand choices and (2) creating advertising messages that give the brand a relative advantage based on these choice process.