Article abstracts, presentations and full citations for IIDO faculty members

  • Shore, L. M. &Thornton, G. C. III. (1986). Effects of gender on self- and supervisory ratings. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 115-129.

    This research investigated the effects of supervisors' and subordinates' genders on self- and supervisor ratings in an organizational setting. Participants were assemblers, 35 men and 35 women, and their supervisors, 16 men and 19 women. Results showed that subordinates' self-ratings were higher than their supervisors' ratings of them and that gender did not affect the relationship between self- and supervisory ratings. In prior research involving novel situations in laboratory settings, women provided lower self-ratings and higher ratings of others than men. The present study showed no gender differences in ratings on familiar tasks in a real work setting in which performance feedback was available.

  • Shore, L. M., & Bleicken, L. M. (1991). Effects of supervisor age and subordinate age on rating congruence. Human Relations, 44, 1093-1105.

    Although increasing numbers of older employees are in the workforce, little research has focused on the relationship between age and both self- and supervisory performance ratings. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of supervisor and subordinate age on the level of agreement between self- and supervisory ratings. The sample consisted of 35 male and 35 female assemblers and their supervisors. Results across dimensions did not show consistent effects for any of the independent variables. The results suggest that age bias may not apply exclusivenly to older workers and may only be associated with selected performance dimensions.

  • Cleveland, J. N. & Shore, L. M. (1992). Self- and supervisory perspectives on age and work attitudes and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 469-484.

    Person- and context-oriented definitions of age were used to predict three sets of work outcomes: work attitudes, performance ratings, and reports of developmental practices. The five age measures included employee chronological age, employee subjective age (i.e., self-perceptions of age), and social age (i.e., others' perceptions of age), as well as self- and supervisors' perceptions of the employee's relative age (i.e., compared with the employee's work group). The study assessed (a) the relationships among the age measures, (b) the additive relationships among the age measures that predicted work outcomes, and (c) the interactive relationships among the age measures that predicted work outcomes. Each prediction received some support except for (b). Furthermore, many of the age-work-outcome relationships were replicated in the managerial sample. Implications for the use of alternative age measures are discussed.

  • Taylor, M. A., & Shore, L. M. (1995). Predicting retirement age: Personal, psychological, and organizational factors. Psychology and Aging, 10, 76-83.

    Given the aging workforce, understanding the retirement process is an area of increasing interest to organizations. T.A. Beehr's (1986) model of retirement behavior was used in this study as a basis for selecting personal, psychological, and organizational predictors of subsequent planned retirement age. In addition, potential differences in predictors of the planned retirement age of retirement-eligible and retirement-ineligible respondents were explored. Two hundred sixty-four respondents working for a large multinational firm completed 2 surveys on their attitudes toward work and retirement. Results showed that chronological age, employee health, and self-perceptions of the ability to adjust to retirement predicted subsequent planned retirement age. Interactions of the predictors with retirement eligibility are reported along with implications for retirement-planning programs.

  • Cleveland, J. N., Shore, L. M., & Murphy, K. R. (1997). Person- and context-oriented perceptual age measures: Additional evidence of distinctiveness and usefulness. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 239-251.

    Cleveland and Shore (1992) suggested that four perceptual age measures could be grouped into person-oriented and context-oriented factors. This study examined longitudinal data from their same sample, and tested three propositions related to the distinctiveness and usefulness of the age measures. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the factor structure proposed by Cleveland and Shore was invariant over time, and that new multi-item scales measuring two types of age loaded on appropriate factors. As hypothesized, context-oriented measures showed less temporal stability than person-oriented measures, and the temporal relationships among person-oriented measures were more easily explained in terms of a strict simplex structure than was the case for context-oriented measures. Perceptual age measures accounted for variance in self-ratings and managers' ratings of employee health, self-ratings of retirement intentions, and managers' ratings of promotability not accounted for by chronological age.

  • Riordan, C. M., & Shore L. M. (1997). Demographic diversity and employee attitudes: An empirical examination of relational demography within work units. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 342-358.

    In this study the authors examined the effects of an individual's similarity to the demographic composition of the workgroup on individual-level attitudes with 98 workgroups from a life insurance company. Results indicated that similarity in race-ethnicity affected individuals' attitudes toward their work group, as well as perceptions of advancement opportunities. Nonsignificant results were found for both similarity in gender and tenure. These findings suggest that demographic variables may have differing complexities in their effects on employee attitudes within work units.

  • Goldstein, H., Yusko, K., Braverman, E.P., Smith, D.B., & Chung, B. (1998). The role of cognitive ability in the subgroup differences and the incremental validity of assessment center exercises. Personnel Psychology, 51(2), pp. 357-374.

    This study investigates the degree to which subgroup (Black-White) mean differences on various assessment center exercises (e.g., in-basket, role play) may be a function of the type of exercises employed; and furthermore, begins to explore why these different types of exercises result in subgroup differences. The sample consisted of 633 participants who completed a managerial assessment center that evaluated them on 14 ability dimensions across 7 different types of assessment exercises. In addition, each participant completed a cognitive ability measure. The results suggest that subgroup differences varied by type of assessment exercise; and furthermore that the subgroup difference appeared to be a function of the cognitive component of the exercise. Lastly, preliminary support is found that the validity of some of the assessment center exercises in predicting supervisor ratings of job performance is based, in part, on their cognitive component; however, evidence of incremental validity does exist.

  • Shore, L. M., Cleveland, J. N., & Goldberg, C. B. (2003). Work attitudes and decisions as a function of manager age and employee age. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 529–537.

    Research has shown the importance of employee age relative to coworker age in determining attitudes, performance, and career-related opportunities. The authors used chronological age and subjective measures of employee and manager age to determine whether employee age relative to the manager has an impact on these same outcome variables. One hundred eighty-five managers and 290 employees completed surveys. The strongest and most consistent age effects were observed for interactions between employee and manager chronological age. Both the magnitude and pattern of the employee-manager age interactions varied by self- and manager-rated outcomes measures of work attitudes, performance and promotability assessments, and developmental experiences. Results are discussed in light of the relational demography and career timetables literatures.

  • Dionne, S.D., Randel, A.E., Jaussi, K.S., & Chun, J. (2004). Diversity and demography in organizations: A levels of analysis review of the literature. In Yammarino, F.J. & Dansereau, F. (Eds.), Research in Multi-Level Issues, 3: 181-229.

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a comprehensive and qualitative review of how levels of analysis issues have been addressed in the diversity and demography literature. More than 180 conceptual and empirical publications (i.e., book chapters and journals articles) in this field are reviewed and coded regarding specific incorporation of levels of analysis in theory and hypothesis formulation, representation of levels of analysis in measurement of constructs and variables, appropriateness of data analytic techniques given the explicit or implied levels of analysis, and alignment between levels of analysis in theory and data in regard to drawing inferences and conclusions. Although the diversity and demography literature continues to grow, in general, levels of analysis issues are rarely considered. Only a few reviewed studies addressed levels of analysis issues in theory development, and no reviewed studies employed any appropriate multilevel data analytic techniques. Implications for future research are discussed and recommendations for incorporating levels of analysis into diversity and demography research are provided.

  • Pearce, J.L. and Randel, A.E. (2004). Expectations of organizational mobility, social inclusion and employee job performance: The costs of employability. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(1): 81-98.

    Two new concepts, employees' Expectations of Organizational Mobility (EOM) and Workplace Social Inclusion (WSI) were developed in part from the burgeoning literature on social capital. Two independent tests of the hypotheses in two different organizations found that the greater employees' expectations of organizational mobility, the lower their workplace social inclusion which in turn was associated with lower employee job performance ratings. Further, the mediating role of workplace social inclusion was confirmed. Our findings support the arguments of those who have warned that employees' expectations for organizational mobility, and implicitly the human resources philosophy of "employability" that encourages such expectations, is associated with comparatively worse individual job performance via lower levels of employee workplace social inclusion. The value of these concepts for current employability debates, for the use of subjective supervisory judgments in performance appraisal ratings and for researchers interested in organization-based communal social capital is discussed.

  • Shore, L.M., & Goldberg, C. B. Age discrimination in the work place. (2004). In R.L. Dipboye and A. Colella (Eds.) The Psychological and Organizational Bases of Discrimination at Work. Frontier Series, Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

    In this chapter, we first discuss alternative causes of age discrimination, including stereotyping, relational demography, career timetables, and prototype matching. Second, we present a model of age discrimination. Third, we present summaries of the research on the effects of age discrimination on organizational entry, experiences in organizations, and organizational exit. Finally, we suggest an agenda for future research.

  • Chung-Herrera, B., & Lankau, M. J. (2005). Are we there yet? An assessment of fit between stereotypes of minority managers and the successful manager prototype. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 2029-2056.

    Caucasian managers from the hospitality industry used a managerial attribute inventory to rate one of five target groups: successful manager, Caucasian American manager, African American manager, Asian American manager, and Hispanic American manager. The results revealed higher correspondence between ratings of Caucasian and Asian American managers and the successful manager prototype than between prototype characteristics and the reported stereotypes of African American and Hispanic American managers. Comparisons between male and female respondents were also made; their reported perceptions were found to be similar.

  • Cleveland, J. N., & Shore, L. M. (2007). Work and employment. In J. Birren (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Gerontology, pp. 683-693. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.

    Research on age and employment shows that age affects many work processes. Yet many studies of the same work process (e.g., hiring, performance evaluation) show inconsistent results. This may be largely due to the influence of the work context and age stereotypes. Contextual variables such as age composition of departments or applicant pools, occupations, and jobs all appear to influence decision about older workers. Furthermore, age stereotypes of workers and of tasks may serve to limit older workers' career opportunities and may encourage early retirement programs and other forms of downsizing that can adversely affect older workers. More systematic research is needed to better understand how the work context and age stereotypes affect older workers.

  • Randel, A.E. and Ranft, A.L. (2007). Motivations to maintain social ties with coworkers: The moderating role of turnover intentions on information exchange. Group & Organization Management, 32(2): 208-232.

    This study examines the relationships among an individual's motivations to maintain social ties with coworkers, information exchange with others outside the firm, and turnover intentions. We considered both relationship motivation to maintain friendships at work and job facilitation motivation to maintain workplace relationships that facilitate an individual's job performance. Results suggest that both types of motivation are related to workplace social inclusion, a concept that has been based in part on the social capital literature. We also find that individuals with job facilitation motivation for maintaining social ties with coworkers engage in more inter-organizational information exchange than those with relationship motivation. When individuals have turnover intentions, the relationship between job facilitation motivation and inter-organizational information exchange is stronger.

  • Dean, M. A., Roth, P. L., & Bobko, P. (2008). Ethnic and gender group differences in assessment center ratings: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 685-691.

    Assessment centers are widely believed to have relatively small standardized subgroup differences (d). However, no meta-analytic review to date has examined ds for assessment centers. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of available data and found an overall Black–White d of 0.52, an overall Hispanic–White d of 0.28, and an overall male–female d of _0.19. Consistent with our expectations, results suggest that Black–White ds in assessment center data may be larger than was previously thought. Hispanic–White comparisons were smaller than were Black–White comparisons. Females, on average, scored higher than did males in assessment centers. As such, assessment centers may be associated with more adverse impact against Blacks than is portrayed in the literature, but the predictor may have less adverse impact and be more "diversity friendly" for Hispanics and females.

  • Ehrhart, K. H., Roesch, S. C., Ehrhart, M. G., & Kilian, B. (2008). A test of the factor structure equivalence of the 50-item IPIP Five-Factor Model measure across gender and ethnic groups. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 507-516.

    Personality is frequently assessed in research and applied settings, in part due to evidence that scores on measures of the Five-factor model (FFM) of personality show predictive validity for a variety of outcomes. Although researchers are increasingly using the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999; International Personality Item Pool, 2007b) FFM measures, investigations of the psychometric properties of these measures are unfortunately sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure equivalence of the 50-item IPIP FFM measure across gender and ethnic groups (i.e., Whites, Latinos, Asian Americans) using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. Results from a sample of 1,727 college students generally support the invariance of the factor structure across groups, although there was some evidence of differences across gender and ethnic groups for model parameters. We discuss these findings and their implications.

  • Randel, A.E. and Jaussi, K.S. (2008). Gender personal and social identity, sex dissimilarity, relationship conflict, and asymmetrical effects. Small Group Research, 39(4): 468-491.

    Research on the linkage between sex diversity and relationship conflict has yielded inconsistent findings. In efforts to address this inconsistency and to better understand what contributes to group member perceptions of relationship conflict, interrelationships among sex dissimilarity, gender identity, and relationship conflict were examined utilizing theoretical frameworks from the literatures on identity, status, sex diversity, and asymmetrical effects. We found that gender social identity moderated the effects of sex dissimilarity on relationship conflict such that in the presence of a strong gender social identity, sex dissimilarity increased perceptions of relationship conflict. This effect was stronger for men than for women, such that men with strong gender social identities in groups in which they are sex dissimilar had greater perceptions of relationship conflict. In addition, a significant three-way interaction was found, in which sex dissimilar individuals with strong gender social and personal identities perceived a particularly high level of relationship conflict.

  • Taylor, M. A., Goldberg, C., Shore, L.M., & Lipka, P. (2008). The effects of retirement expectations and social support on post-retirement adjustment: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23, 458-470.

    The aim of this study is to examine the shifting effects of retirement expectations and social support on adjustment three and a half and 10 months post-retirement. For the purpose of this study, the authors used a survey methodology. Expectations regarding retirement and social support were used to predict three facets of satisfaction post-retirement; life satisfaction, retirement satisfaction, and social satisfaction. Results suggested that expectations consistently and significantly predicted satisfaction early and later in retirements. Social support was only a significant antecedent of retirement satisfaction at time 2, and had a non-significant relationship to social and life satisfaction in retirement. Results support the view that retirement expectations have a strong influence on retirement, life, and social satisfaction in the first year of an individual's retirement.

  • Chung-Herrera, B., Ehrhart, K.H., Ehrhart, M., Solamon, J. & Kilian, B. (2009). Do test preparation and strategies reduce the black-white performance gap? Journal of Management, 35, 1207-1227.

    Using a field sample, we examined the extent to which race is related to test preparation and whether test preparation is related to test performance. Indeed, we found that African Americans reported more self-initiated test preparation than Caucasians and that tutorial attendance and self-initiated test preparation were related to test performance. Moreover, we found that only self-initiated test preparation mediated the race-performance relationship. Last, the hypothesis that the Matthew Effect (defined as the amplification of any initial advantage that leads to cumulative effects) would hold in an employment setting was not supported. The implications of test preparation are discussed.

  • Lankau, M. J., & Chung-Herrera, B. (2009). A comparison of American and international prototypes of successful managers. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(1), 7-18.

    In this study, similarities and differences between prototypes of successful managers were examined across four different cultural groups: Americans, Europeans, Asians, and Latin Americans. Managers from the hospitality industry (N = 366) used an 84-item attribute inventory to rate a successful middle manager. In addition, Americans' stereotypes of ethnic managers were compared with prototypes held by managers from those ethnic cultures. Specifically, American managers' perceptions of Asian and Hispanic managers were compared against Asian and Hispanic/Latin American managers' prototypes. A high level of correspondence in prototype characteristics was found across the four cultural groups. In addition, American-defined ethnic manager stereotypes also contained similar profiles to cultural prototypes. However, important differences were also detected on many managerial characteristics. Implications of the findings for cross-cultural congruence and areas for future research are discussed.

  • Randel, A.E. and Earley, P.C. (2009). Organizational culture and similarity among team members' salience of multiple diversity characteristics. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(4): 804-833.

    Research often has focused on the presence of individuals' demographic differences rather than the perception of such differences. We examined how organizational culture relates to similarity among individuals' salience of their team members' diversity characteristics. Moreover, we introduced a new approach to studying multiple diversity characteristics simultaneously. Team members who perceive their organizational culture as emphasizing respect for people were found to be unlikely to hold convergent views of their team members' demographics. Also, high performing team members were found to view the salience of demographic characteristics similarly to other team members. Our findings suggest that an organizational culture emphasizing respect for people may be associated with unexpected barriers among team members that pose a threat to effective team functioning.

  • Chung-Herrera, B, Gonzales, G., & Hoffman, D. K. (2010). When Demographic Differences Exist: An Analysis Of Service Failure And Recovery Among Diverse Participants The Journal of Services Marketing, 24, 128-141.

    To explore whether demographic differences between diverse customers and service providers impact service failure and recovery perceptions. The critical incidents technique was used to gather data on service failures and recovery. Chi-square test of independence and analysis of variance was used to test the hypotheses. Results from the main study provide little support to the notion that different service failure types or service recovery efforts are being applied when demographic differences exist. However, a post-hoc analysis focusing on respondents who felt that their demographic differences had impacted their encounter revealed that ethnic differences impacted service failure and recovery perceptions the most.

  • Chung-Herrera, B., Ehrhart, M., Ehrhart, K.H., Hattrup, K., & Solamon, J. (2010). Stereotype threat, state anxiety, and specific self-efficacy as predictors of promotion exam performance. Group and Organization Management, 35, 77-107.

    This field study examined perceived stereotype threat in a promotion context using a written job knowledge test. We hypothesized that race and ethnic identity would predict perceptions of stereotype threat, and that the effect of stereotype threat on test performance would be mediated by state anxiety and specific self-efficacy in a specified sequential order. Using structural equation modeling analyses of data from two public safety departments in a metropolitan city indicated support for this model. However, the stereotype threat effect was small, which may be due to the use of a job knowledge test, a promotion sample, or the composition of the applicant pool. Noteworthy contributions include the use of a self-report measure of stereotype threat, inclusion of two mediator variables in a theory-based sequence, and a test of the stereotype threat effect in an actual employment context.

  • Sy, T., Shore, L. M., Strauss, J., Shore, T.H., Tram, S. Whiteley, P., & Ikeda-Muromachi, K. (2010). Leadership perceptions as a function of race-occupation fit: The case of Asian Americans. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 902-919.

    On the basis of the connectionist model of leadership (COMOL), we examined perceptions of leadership as a function of the contextual factors of race (Asian-American, AA; Caucasian-American, CA) and occupation (engineering, sales) in three experiments (one student sample and two industry samples). Race and occupation exhibited differential effects for within and between race comparisons. Regarding within race comparisons, leadership perceptions of AAs were higher when race-occupation was a good fit (engineer position) than when race-occupation was a poor fit (sales position) for the two industry samples. Regarding between race comparisons, leadership perceptions of AAs were low relative to CAs. Additionally, when race-occupation was a good fit for AAs, they were evaluated higher on perceptions of technical competence than CAs whereas they were evaluated lower when race-occupation was a poor fit. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that race affects leadership perceptions via the activation of prototypic leadership attributes (i.e., implicit leadership theories). Implications for the findings are discussed in terms of the COMOL and leadership opportunities for Asian Americans.

  • Chung, B., Dean, M., & Ehrhart, K. (In Press).  Inclusion values, practices, and intellectual capital predicting organizational outcomes.  Accepted for publication at Personnel Review.